Funk is one of the fundamental styles in the music of the second half of the twentieth century. Is an integral part of such styles as jazz-rock . fusion . hip hop . acid jazz . jungle . disco . drum bass and many others.
Music style funk is a direct sequel to soul music. Sometimes even experts find it difficult to make a clear distinction between them.
The term soul ( soul ) was defined as a movement of American blacks in the struggle for their rights during the time of slavery in the United States. Believers American slave owners then tried to legitimize the murder of blacks, claiming that they, as animals do not have souls and therefore the First commandment of Christ is not broken. Black ideologues have made the existence of the soul niggers major moment in the struggle for survival. The result was the soul of the brotherhood. and American blacks began to call each other soul brothers or just the word soul.
As a new kind of soul music emerged in the mid 50-ies of XX century. Originated in the late 30’s rhythm blues ( rhythm and Blues ) black electrified urban Blues got the name rock roll ( rock & roll ) for the convenience of its spread among white audiences. Some members of the rhythm and Blues. combining this music with spiritual ideas of Negro spirituals hymns ( spirituals ) and gospels ( Gospels ), gave it new meaning.
Thus arose the soul. The founder is the singer ray Charles ( Ray Charles ), and the first, the most outstanding representatives of James brown ( James Brown ) and Sam Cooke ( Sam Cooke ). But, if ray Charles gave the music soul lyric, household character, James brown began to invest in his music more serious problems. In 1962, he proclaimed himself as soul brother number one. Thus, from the outset, soul music began to develop in two directions as a socio-filled, addressed to the Negroes, and as lightweight entertainment, beautiful and lyrical.
Commercial boom of soul music led to the emergence of many companies, two of which were founders of the entire areas in black pop music. This firm Motown in Detroit and Stax in Memphis. Characteristically, the first created by a black man berry Gordy, took a course on entertainment soul music for white people, and therefore subsequently became world famous. The direction of Motown represented by such outstanding artists as Diana Ross ( Diana Ross ), Marvin Gay (Marvin Gaye), Stevie wonder ( Stevie Wander ), Michael Jackson ( Michael Jackson ) and many others. Firm Stax. created by white entrepreneurs, on the contrary, tried to keep true-black spirit of soul music . Its representatives were such prominent figures as Wilson Pickett ( Wilson Pickett ), Rufus Thomas ( Rufus Thomas ), Otis Redding ( Otis Redding ).
By 1968, in the U.S. escalated the political situation. After the assassination of black leader Martin Luther king, riots broke out in black neighborhoods in many cities, and in major cities Chicago, Detroit, Boston, Washington Negroes staged a mass demonstration, which was broken up with lots of casualties. The struggle for the rights of blacks in America has become more active, and sometimes aggressive nature. Developed by such organizations as the Black Panther ( Black Panthers and Black Muslims Black Muslims ). Some Negroes, disappointed in Christianity, in protest, took the Muslim faith, changing their names.
Some of the popular soul band realized that to stay away from these problems, while remaining simple at the sky. Lady soul singer Aretha Franklin ( Aretha Franklin ), responding to the urgent requirements of the black identity. released in 1968, a number of songs, which has sounded the theme of protest and had the word freedom. At the same time and James brown recorded a hit song Say It Loud, I’m Black and I’m Proud! ( Say it loud – I’m black and proud of it! ). Since that time, and there is the word funk . as a symbol of a new, more rigid styles in black music. And indeed this music is becoming much tougher and sharper than the soul .
The word funk has long been used as part of the everyday jargon of the inhabitants of the Negro ghetto. According to some sources, it refers to the smell of the human body at the moment of sexual arousal. The word appeared in a musical household with a light hand jazz composer and pianist Horace silver (Horace Silver), issued in 1952 his play named Funky Hotel. Later, the term was used by the group Dyke the Blazers in their Funky hit Broadway. Well, James brown made this term popular all over the world, giving it a social sense.
The first performers that will take to the music of the funk . were jazz musicians who played in the late 50’s, early 60’s more energetic, a specific type of jazz that is close to soul music . First of all, this is Horace silver (Horace Silver), brothers Quintet Adderley (Adderley), Art Blakey (Art Blakey and Jazz Messengers. Stanley Turrentine Stanley Turrentine), Donald Byrd (Donald Byrd), Grant green (Grant Green) with the disc-His Majesty King Funk. as well as stars of the Hammond organ Jimmy Smith (Jimmy Smith and Jack McDuff (Jeck McDuff).
If we talk about the difference between FUNK and SOUL from a purely musical point of view, first of all, it should be noted that in FUNK music are completely different rhythmic patterns. Soul and rhythm and Blues, music triola, when every quarter of tact mentally divided into three eighth notes. Funk is the music of eight-eighths. when a quarter is divided exactly in half, or with a small offset ( this rhythm is called shuffle – Shuffle ). In addition, there is a more acute syncope and more varied texture created by the accompanying instruments.Harmonic structures in music funk is extremely simple, usually everything is kept on one chord, but the rhythmic fabric is quite complex. It is as if woven from several independent lines superimposed on each other and filling the rhythmic space.
The peak of popularity of James brown as funk-stars came in the late 60’s, early 70-ies. James brown this is the most powerful and influential figure in a funk, but to understand what is funk James brown must listen to the albums of the 70-ies in particular "Sex Machine Today" and " Body Heat".
Of his heritage became his partners, separated in consequence from it. This guitarist George Clinton (George Clinton) who have created groups such as The Parliament and Funkadelic. still popular, as well as bassist Bootsy Collins (Bootsy Collins) and his Bootsy s Rubber Band. George Clinton on the cover of their records showed a sign of black freedom fighters ( goat – a fist with a raised pinky and ukazatelem finger the image of the letter U from the word Unity unity, in response to the token hippie V Victory victory) and also popularized the slogan One Nation united under the Groove ( One nation, United by a sense of rhythm ).
The true stiffness in the face of funk Larry Graham ( Larry Graham ), group Kool and the Gang. The Ohio Players. brothers Johnson ( The Brothers Johnson ) on the one hand, and the aggressiveness of the black atonal avant-garde jazz in the person of Archie Shepp (Archie Shepp), albert Alera (Albert Ailer)or Pharao Sanders (Pharoah Sanders) were consonant with the movement of black nationalist movements.
At the same time in the Prime was and rock culture, which embraced the mostly white youth.
In the environment of rock artists emerged varieties of white Blues British Blues and soul music, which was named Blueyed Soul ( blue-Eyed soul ). Its brightest representatives became Joe Cocker (Joe Cocker) and Jannis Joplin (Jennis Joplin) and the group of the Righteous Brithers. Young Rascals. Delaney and Bonnie. Averige White Band and many others.
But gradually the funk away from political struggle, evolving as its own direction, as well as influencing other genres. As a result there was a pop ensembles of the new type that uses a fairly complex rhythmic and harmonic structures (e.g. Earth, Wind Fire or Tower of Power ). Key locations in the arena of world popularity long occupied such artists as Michael Jackson (Michael Jackson), Prince (Prince) or Stevie wonder (Stevie Wonder), whose music is permeated by the concept of funk.
On the other hand it is funky with its sophisticated syncopations spawned disco . its opposite, the music is extremely simplified in rhythmic relation. And in this case the important role played by music of one of the outstanding representatives of the music funky fusion Herbie Hancock (Herbie Hancock).
Almost simultaneously, in the early 80s, funk has taken its firm place in the culture of hip-hop, released from the bowels of the black ghetto. Currently funk underlies such directions as Aсid Jazz. Jungle. Drum Bass. and even interspersed in some varieties of new age music.
The greatest influence funk had on this multi-faceted musical phenomenon as jazz-rock/fusion.
The work of saxophonist Grover of Washington (Grover Washington Jr.) early 70-ies, was a glaring example of the Alliance of the traditions of funk and soul-jazz. Well, late music M. Davis 80-ies, starting with a disc Man with a Horn this is an example conceptual funk, which incorporates many layers of musical culture. It is important to note the fact that in the face of jazz stars, who came into the funk . this music has been purely instrumental incarnation.
One of the first who openly applied rhythmic pop-funk in jazz, combined with a modern electronic instruments, was Herbie Hancock (Herbie Hancock). His CD Headhunters (1973) became fundamental in the process of further development of this style, funky-fusion . as well as significantly influenced what is now called Cool Jazz or Smooth Jazz (David Sanborn, Grover Washington, Kenny G. Bob James). In the future, Hancock turned to the funk in combination with such directions hip-hop, break dance (break dance) Future Shock (1983), Sound System (1984), and rap Dis Is Da Drum (1994). His famous video clip, shot on the basis of the play Rock It. became world famous hit and received a Grammy award.
Time gradually erased the boundaries between